Access to affordable health care? Controlling waste in the health care system? Whichever candidate is elected on November 8th, the next President of the United States will be faced with the question of how to tackle the healthcare challenges of our nation, and will have an opportunity to move the country forward towards better population health. Drs. Stephen Shortell and Diane Rittenhouse discuss The Most Critical Health Care Issues for the Next President to Address in the online edition of Annals of Internal Medicine.